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Printing & Related Industries

We next consider job losses in printing and related support activities (NAICS 323).  Activities in this subsector include the printing of magazines and periodicals, catalogs and directories, labels and wrappers, business forms and checkbooks, advertising materials, and loose leaf binders; screen printing on labels and garments; and printing and binding of books and pamphlets. 

Not surprisingly, printing has followed paper products.  American printing establishments, which employed 812,800 workers at the beginning of 1990, employed an average 452,517 in 2014.  The following figure and table illustrate those job losses:  


After a dip following the 1990-91 recession, we see a modest increase through the economic expansion of the 1990s, and then a return to the 1990 level.  Then, beginning after 2000, we see the “double dip” curve of job losses: First, coincident with the 2001 recession and the granting of permanent most favored nation status and WTO membership to China, is a steep drop followed by a more gradual rate of loss.  Then, during the Great Recession of 2008-2009 is another steep drop followed by a shallower decline to a low of 452,033 jobs in 2013, for a loss of some 376,000 jobs from the peak of 1998.  Since the low of 2013, employment has seen an insignificant recovery of the lost jobs, averaging 452,517 jobs in 2014.

Key Finding:

Between 1990 and 2014, printing and related industries[i] saw a 44% decline in employment, losing more than four out of every ten jobs, some 251,000 jobs in all.


GO TO Group 4.


[i] Industries in the Printing and Related Support Activities subsector print products, such as newspapers, books, labels, business cards, stationery, business forms, and other materials, and perform support activities, such as data imaging, platemaking services, and bookbinding. The support activities included here are an integral part of the printing industry, and a product (a printing plate, a bound book, or a computer disk or file) that is an integral part of the printing industry is almost always provided by these operations.  The printing and related support activities subsector consists of a single industry group, Printing and Related Support Activities: NAICS 3231.  [North American Industry Classification System, published at]

News and Events

May 15, 2014, Ontario, CA - MIAA's founder, Jim Stuber, delivered the keynote address at the 20th annual World Trade Conference sponsored by the U.S. Department of Commerce and the California Inland Empire District Export Council in Ontario, California.  To view the conference agenda, click here:

New file download

May 7, 2015, Radnor, PA.  MIAA's founder, Jim Stuber, appeared as the guest of host Richard J. Anthony, Sr. on The Entrepreneur's Network TV at Radnor Studio 21.  The program featured a discussion of the problems caused by offshoring manufacturing and white collar jobs and how consmers can solve the problem with their spending decisions. 

Studio 21 has made the program available for viewing here:

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