Made in America Again AWARE
Made in America AgainAWARE

Paper & Paper Products

We next consider job losses in paper and paper products.  Here we find a wide assortment of products from raw to finished, including pulp mill products, paper mill products, newsprint, paperboard, corrugated and solid boxes, paperboard containers, paper bags, wallpaper, wrapping paper, cut paper and stationery products, and disposable diapers and other sanitary paper products. 

American paper mills and paper product plants, which employed 647,100 workers at the beginning of 1990, employed an average 371,492 in 2014.  The following figure illustrates those job losses:  


After a slight dip following the 1990-91 recession, we see a maintenance of the status quo until 1994, when NAFTA went into effect and a shallow decline began.  This is followed by a rapid fall-off marked by a break in the curve beginning after 2000, coincident with the 2001 recession and the granting of permanent most favored nation status and WTO membership to China.  The pace of job loss accelerated through the Great Recession in 2008-2009.  Since then, employment has continued a shallow decline, to about 371,500 jobs in 2014.

Key Finding:

Between 1990 and 2014, we shipped nearly half of our paper and paper products[i] jobs offshore: 43 percent of the jobs, some 276,000 jobs in all. 

GO TO: Printing and Related Industries.


[i] Industries in the Paper Manufacturing subsector make pulp, paper, or converted paper products. The manufacturing of these products is grouped together because they constitute a series of vertically connected processes. More than one is often carried out in a single establishment. There are essentially three activities. The manufacturing of pulp involves separating the cellulose fibers from other impurities in wood or used paper. The manufacturing of paper involves matting these fibers into a sheet. Converted paper products are made from paper and other materials by various cutting and shaping techniques and include coating and laminating activities.  The paper manufacturing subsector consists of these industry groups: Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Mills (NAICS 3221) and Converted Paper Product Manufacturing (NAICS 3222).  North American Industry Classification System, published at .

News and Events

May 15, 2014, Ontario, CA - MIAA's founder, Jim Stuber, delivered the keynote address at the 20th annual World Trade Conference sponsored by the U.S. Department of Commerce and the California Inland Empire District Export Council in Ontario, California.  To view the conference agenda, click here:

New file download

May 7, 2015, Radnor, PA.  MIAA's founder, Jim Stuber, appeared as the guest of host Richard J. Anthony, Sr. on The Entrepreneur's Network TV at Radnor Studio 21.  The program featured a discussion of the problems caused by offshoring manufacturing and white collar jobs and how consmers can solve the problem with their spending decisions. 

Studio 21 has made the program available for viewing here:

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